## Dynamic Deceptive Functions

Used in: [FMRR08][PCR08][YWW+08]

Deceptive functions constitute a family of functions designed to trick search methods, since they attract the search towards deceptive attractors.

A deceptive function can be built using a trap function as follows:

where **l** is the length of a solution **x**, **a** is the local optimum, **b** is the global optimum, **z** is the slope-change location, and **u(x)** is the unitation function.

A deceptive dynamic function based on the former trap function replaces the unitation function for a bit-matching which changes upon time: